New Mexico has a wide range of climatic factors that determine the best kinds of fruit trees that are adapted for growing during extreme temperature fluctuations and soil profiles. Santa Fe, NM is located in frigid USDA zone 5, and very limited types of apple trees and other types of fruit tree, especially peach, pear tree and plum trees can be grown in Santa Fe, NM. For instance, sweet cherry trees like Black Tartarian cherries and Bing cherry trees can often be damaged by late, unexpected spring frosts, however, sour pie cherry trees, like Montmorency cherries and North Star cherry tree are good for planting in Northern New Mexico. Apple trees such as Jonathon apple, Red Delicious apple tree and Golden Delicious apple trees are good for planting and on most New Mexico soils. For central New Mexico, the Elberta peach tree and the Reliance peach trees produce delicious dessert type peach fruits. The Santa Rosa plum tree produces a red, tried and tested plum, that is suitable for planting in most NM zones except for zones 4 and 5. The Green Gage plum tree is similarly grown and adapted in the above zones. The purple Stanley plum tree is a plum that is excellent for planting in colder New Mexico orchards zone 4 and 5. The Tilton Apricot tree produces a tasty, sweet, apricot fruit that can be grown throughout NM except zone 8, and the golden Moorpark apricot is an important commercial fruit that is commonly found in grocery stores.
Many nut trees can be grown in New Mexico, mainly because of the dry atmosphere that is the most favorable for growing thin shelled (papershell) pecan trees. New Mexico has become a major producer among States for pecan commercial production of in-shell nuts. The Stuart pecan and Desirable pecan trees are often found planted together as companion trees in order for proper cross pollination in pecan orchards. Almond trees and walnut trees grow well in New Mexico, and the Chinese chestnut tree is very cold hardy and a good producer of high quality, Chinese chestnuts in all New Mexico USDA climate zones.
Red mulberry trees and Persian black mulberry trees offer great promise as producers of marketable mulberries. Red raspberry plants and black raspberries grow throughout NM. Blackberry plants, both thorny and thornless blackberry plants, can be grown not only as backyard garden berries, but as commercial berries. Blueberry plants are limited for growing in New Mexico, because of the alkaline basic soils, but the addition of peat moss or elemental sulfur to the soil surface will make blueberry planting possible.
Bunch grapevines and seedless grape vines grow in most USDA zones of New Mexico. Muscadine grape vines and Scuppernong grapevine production is limited to planting in zone 7 and 8. Wine grapes can be grown that contain high concentrations of sugar-excellent for wine production.